The enhancement … Epub 2020 Jun 13. The latter part of this review considers organic compounds in the following order: agrochemicals, petroleum and crude oil hydrocarbons, PAHs and PCBs. As a consequence, the soils in PRD have been extensively under severe environmental stresses and considered to be a perfect region for regional researching and evaluation of pollutions (Hu et al. For example, the initial first-order rate of DDT dechlorination was 1.7 Â± 0.4 and 3.0 Â± 0.8 day-1 or, normalized by the specific iron surface area, 0.016 Â± 0.004 and 0.029 Â± 0.008 L m-2 h-1, without and with surfactant, respectively. Environ Toxicol Chem. The air-soil equilibrium status indicated that the forest/basin soil was a source for most DDTs, while the plateau soil was a sink receiving DDTs from the LRAT and photodegradation in air (for metabolites). Epub 2019 Jan 9. Vermicomposting was carried out by Eisenia fetida earthworms for 12 weeks. • Results: – earthworms will survive in bioremediated soil with high residual TPH concentrations; – … Red Wigglers (Eisenia Fetida) are called a lot of names Redworms, Tiger Worms, Manure Worms and Compost Worms. They are illustrated by the examples of pollutant behavior on the agricultural areas of the former Soviet Union. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. A mechanistic model was constructed that qualitatively fit the observed kinetic data, indicating that the rate of dechlorination of the solid-phase (crystalline) reactants was limited by the rate of dissolution into the aqueous phase. Of these concentrations 1050Â±240 and 12Â±9mgPbkgâ1 dry weight were suggested to be available, using ammonium acetate (1M), respectively. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of source control for the risk management of POPs. An enhancement of the AT disappearance rate was observed in the presence of all the solid matrices tested compared with that obtained in an aqueous medium. A case study of DDT degradation in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, Uptake kinetics of four hydrophobic organic pollutants in the earthworm Eisenia andrei in aged laboratory-contaminated natural soils, Sodium arsenite modified burrowing behavior of earthworm species Metaphire californica and Eisenia fetida in a farm soil, Contribution of earthworms to PCB bioremediation, Earthworm Assisted Bioremediation of Organic Contaminants, Review: Behavior of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Air-Plant-Soil System, Lead tolerance in Aporrectodea rosea earthworms from a clay pigeon shooting site, DDT, DDD, and DDE dechlorination by zero-valent iron, Effects of Lumbricus terrestris, Allolobophora chlorotica and Eisenia fetida on microbial community dynamics in oil-contaminated soil, Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in household composts and earthworms (Eisenia foetida), Handbook of Soil Analysis. Twenty cm deep columns containing Aroclor 1242 contaminated soil were bioaugmented with the PCB-degrading micro-organisms, Ralstonia eutrophus H850 and Rhodococcus sp. The remediation of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil has become a global problem due to its toxicity to living organisms. Results showed that the Eisenia fetida was able to significantly remove phenanthrene from the polluted soil samples. 2015; ... CS control soil, PS soil + P. corethrurus, RS soil + A. robustus, AS soil + A. aspergillum, ns p > 0.05 Significant differences between the casts and the non-ingested soil group of T test are note by ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05 demonstrated that Amynthas sp. transformed in the abiotic system of Fe(2+)+alpha-FeOOH and the system of DIRB+alpha-FeOOH. Soil treated with P. corethrurus had higher soil pH values, exchangeable CaÂ²âº contents, and lower AlEx than those with A. robustus and A. aspergillum. E. fetida survival in soil contaminated with two distinct crude oils was … It covers a large body of technical information including protocols, tables, formulae, spectrum models, chromatograms and additional analytical diagrams. *: P # 0.05, **: P # 0.01, and ***: P # 0.001. Three native earthworm species and a soil (latosolic red soil) collected from a botanical garden in South China were incubated under laboratory conditions. Epub 2017 Jun 21. However, the effects of earthworms on soil Al toxicity and fractions are still largely unknown. Our previous work has demonstrated the earthworm A. robustus was more efficient in enhancing soil DDT removal than E. fetida, ... For each treatment, the soil was contaminated with DDT at a concentration of 4 mg kg â1 dry soil. Based on a microcosmic laboratory experiment, epigeic species Amynthas corticis (A. corticis) and endogeic species Amynthas robustus (A. robustus) were cultured in two types of soils contaminated by Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu for 120 days. In addition, the use of vermicompost as soil amendment reduced the availability and mobility of potential toxic metals [19,20] and pesticides , which favors their elimination in soils [22,23]. POPs in the environment might decline rapidly due to a reduction in source input and significant degradation as indicated by our study. Earthworm activity increase DTPA extracted Zn and Cu, and the effect of A. robustus were stronger than for A. corticis. Biobeds bioremediation systems are effectively used for minimizing pesticide point-source contamination. Compared to epigeic earthworms, endogeic earthworms tend to make burrows and move frequently in soil. The results show that earthworms shortened the half-time of DDT in soils from over 14 weeks to about 8 weeks; DDT residues were lower (p < 0.05) and its transformation products were higher (p < 0.05) in drilosphere matrixes than those in their non-drilosphere counterparts; DDD and DDMU was higher (p < 0.05) in the gut, and DDE was higher (p < 0.05) in the burrow; and the bioaccumulation of DDT in earthworm tissues only contributed less than 0.03% to the DDT removal enhanced by earthworms. Many studies have explored the effects of As on various physiological and biochemical processes in soil fauna. Epub … It seems compound biodegradation might be significant in aged soils when the conditions change (e.g. For pyrene, the results surprisingly showed peak-shape accumulation curves despite long aging. The iron was successful at dechlorinating DDT, DDD, and DDE. Both Keywords: DDTs were ubiquitous in soil and air with the total DDT concentrations (Î£10DDTs) ranging 37.7â70,100 pg gâ»Â¹ dw and 3.4â175 pg mâ»Â³, respectively. Lead tolerance in individuals of the earthworm species Aporrectodea rosea collected from a clay pigeon shooting site was investigated. Soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen (average + standard deviation, n 1â4 3) in different treatments after incubation. species displayed an initially similar burrowing rate in farm soil with no added As. Residual acetochlor in soil conferred a long-term impairment on fungal community, and this inhibition could be repaired by earthworm. Earthworms are also acknowledged as bio-indicators of heavy metals or other pollutants (Calisi et al., 2013; Dynamics of DDMS and DDMU in soils with DDT application under rice and ryegrass planting by pot experiment in greenhouse was conducted. With the significant degradation, the continuous input via LRAT was deemed to be the main reason for the stable level (persistence) of POPs in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. NIH There are several studies found that earthworms have the capacity to accelerate the removal of organic contaminants, such as PCBs, PAHs and pesticides from soil, ... Burrow lining was easily destroyed by the extensive activity of Eisenia fetida and couldn't maintain stable environment for acetochlor degradation in soil (Tang et al., 2016). E. fetida survival in soil contaminated with two distinct crude oils was tested in an artificial (lab-mixed) sandy loam soil, and survival compared to that in the clean soil. In the oil-contaminated soil, respiration and concentration of microbial biomass was significantly enhanced by earthworm amendment, and TPH concentrations decreased significantly. The exhausted biomixtures can contain pesticide residues and so they require a special treatment before being discharged into the environment. Environmental Progress 8, 46â51). Therefore, increasing efforts have been made to deal with environmental pollution issues in the PRD region. According to two-way ANOVA, BSAF-Pb clearly showed the effect of different species of earthworms while BSAF-Cu indicated an interactive effect of earthworms and soil type. Taking earthworms as example, earthworms are common and the most important soil invertebrates, representing for 60-80% of the total soil biomass . Stepwise regression indicated that earthworm might change soil properties through their activities and interactions with soil, and hence increase heavy metal bioavailability. Californian red worm (Eisenia foetida), which provoke mixing and constant aeration of the materials, as well as providing digestive enzymes that influence the decomposition of organic matter (Santamaría … doi: 10.1016/j.btre.2020.e00478. Effects of two ecological earthworm species (epigeic Eisenia foetida and endogeic Amynthas robustus E. Perrier) with different densities (15 and 30 individuals per kg of soil) on the removal of soil 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) with two pollution levels (2 and 4 mg kg(-1)) were investigated. The CI remained high for all specimens except those from the uncontaminated site kept in As-rich soil, for which mortality was 100% after 28 d. Tissue As concentrations in L rubellus from uncontaminated and contaminated sites were <1 mg kgâ1 and 230 mg kgâ1, respectively. A laboratory microcosm experiment was conducted to determine whether the earthworm Eisenia fetida could survive in a saline soil from a field site in North China, and an experiment using response surface methodology was conducted at that field site to quantify the effects of E.fetida … Eisenia fetida (older spelling: foetida), known under various common names such as redworm, brandling worm, panfish worm, trout worm, tiger worm, red wiggler worm, etc., is a species of earthworm … eCollection 2019 Dec. Soroldoni S, Silva G, Correia FV, Marques M. Ecotoxicology. The results further demonstrate that drilosphere is the hotspot of soil DDT transformation with oxidative degradation dominant in the burrow and reductive dechlorination in the gut, and earthworms enhanced DDT removal mainly by digesting and promoting the microbial degradation of DDT by indigenous microorganisms via improving soil properties. The toxicities of three oil products with boiling-point ranges representative of petroleum hydrocarbons were tested on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) to investigate the correlation between bioaccumulated … Bioremediation has the advantages of high efficiency (especially for large, low contamination areas), low cost, easy available, harmless for the ecosystem and high public acceptance, which has been widely developed in remediation of combined pollution of heavy metals and pesticides. AKA "compost worms" "red wigglers" "manure worms" and most commonly "redworms". Earthworms have been shown to stimulate the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil, and it was hypothesized that the role of earthworms in remediation lies in the enhancement of an oil degrading microbial community. Therefore, despite the aging, longer exposure was probably needed to reach the true equilibrium between concentrations in earthworms and soil. The half-life of DDT in the soil varies from 3 to 30 years under natural conditions. DDD was observed as the primary transformation product, which was demonstrated to be, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Earthworm burrowing behavior responded significantly to both arsenite concentration and exposure time. 93.2% from local degradation, implying overall high degradation of DDTs. Earthworm characteristics (i.e. Mineralogical, Organic and Inorganic Methods, Resistance to arsenic-toxicity in a population of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, Guangdong Natural Science Funds for Distinguished Young Scholars (2017A030306010), National Science Foundation of China (41330857 and 41471216), Australian Research Council DECRA Grant (DE150100500), [Dynamics of DDMS and DDMU in soils under rice and ryegrass planting]. 2008 Nov;71(3):638-42. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2008.02.015. To test a simple postbioremediation technique, we added earthworms (Eisenia fetida) or wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw to petroleum land‐farm soil and measured biological quality of the soil as responses in plant growth, soil respiration, and oil … Results. Therefore, our study focused on the uptake kinetics of four hydrophobic organic compounds (pyrene, lindane, p,p'-DDT and PCB 153) in two laboratory-contaminated natural soils with different soil properties (e.g. During these experiments, soils were moderately toxic during the first three months, then earthworms survived well, were active and reproduced with petroleum hydrocarbons present. The PCB congener pattern was similar to that of commercial technical mixtures (dominated by tetrachlorinated PCBs) in contrast with data reported from outdoor composts. 2019 Nov 8;17(2):839-846. doi: 10.1007/s40201-019-00400-y. Acetochlor degradation was quicker in soil with earthworms than without earthworms, with the degradation rates increased by 62.3 Â± 15.2% and 9.7 Â± 1.7% in sterile and natural treatments respectively. eCollection 2020 Sep. Farzadkia M, Esrafili A, Gholami M, Koolivand A. J Environ Health Sci Eng. The effect of earthworms on enhancing removal and microbial degradation processes of HOCs by bioturbation or distribution of soil microorganisms was previously reported (Contreras-Ramos et al., 2006; ... Earthworms make an important contribution to soil health and organic matter cycling, and are often regarded as indicators of land productive capacity and soil fertility status (Pelosi et al., 2017;Blouin et al., 2013;Sun et al., 2017;Brussaard et al., 2007). related mechanisms. Environ Int. The survey showed that the main pollution type in China was inorganic pollution (82.2%), followed by organic pollution and combined pollution (Ministry of Environmental Protection and Ministry of Land and Resources of P. R. China, The transformation of DDT was studied in an anaerobic system of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (Shewanella decolorationis S12) and iron oxide (alpha-FeOOH). The main inorganic pollutants are heavy metals, including cadmium, arsenic, copper, lead, chromium, zinc, etc. 2012). total organic carbon content of 1.6 and 9.3%) aged for 203 days to mimic long-term contamination. The objectives of this study were: 1) to study how earthworms affect DDT reduction; 2) to explore how earthworms affect DDT transformation pathways; 3) to figure out the mechanisms of earthworm effects on soil DDT removal. In this study, we evaluated the influence of biochar and Bacillus megatherium on Cd removal from artificially contaminated soils using earthworms (Eisenia fetida).Within a 35-days remediation period, … However, far less attention has been paid to the impact that earthworms have on soil Al in terms of its toxicity and fractions. Due to their biological, chemical and physical actions, earthworms can be directly employed within bioremediation strategies to promote biodegradation of organic contaminants. For E. foetida, the higher earthworm density showed significantly higher rate of DDT degradation than the lower one. Knowledge of the mechanisms of DDT transformation by earthworms will support the use of earthworms in remediating DDT-contaminated soils. Bioremediation has become an attractive alternative to physicochemical methods of remediation, where feasible. With feed alone, the rate was ~40mg/day, with signs of slowing after 500days. Heavy metals combined with soil minerals might be released during intestinal digestion by endogeic earthworms (Sizmur and Hodson, 2009). This suggested that earthworm enhanced the soil nutrient utilization efficiency, especially the soil organic matter cycle (Fig. | Earthworm presence and activity can alter soil pH, which has a significant influence on Al toxicity. The metabolites accounted for avg. 3B). 2020 May 26;27:e00478. Effects of two ecological earthworm species (epigeic Eisenia foetida and endogeic Amynthas robustus E. Perrier) with different densities (15 and 30 individuals per kg of soil) on the … (a) Low soil DDT pollution level (2 mg kg Ã 1 ) and (b) high soil DDT pollution level (4 mg. 2013). These worms are the most common composting worm on the market. The results further demonstrate that drilosphere is the hotspot of soil DDT transformation with oxidative degradation dominant in the burrow and reductive dechlorination in the gut, and earthworms enhanced DDT removal mainly by digesting and promoting the microbial degradation of DDT by indigenous microorganisms via improving soil properties. R Soc Open Sci. The study aims to investigate effect of earthworm activity on metal bioavailability in soils using their BSAF-metals. The effect of earthworm on acetochlor degradation in soil was studied by soil column experiment with or without acetochlor and earthworm in sterile and natural soils. Soil pH; organic carbon; total nitrogen; total Al (AlTotal); exchangeable K, Na, Ca, Mg contents; and CEC were determined as well. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Safflower oil is packed with health benefits for nearly every tissue and system of our body. With respect to earthworm body burdens of lead the shooting site earthworms had a body burden of 6.1Â±1.2mgPbgâ1 dry weight while the uncontaminated site earthworms had almost a 1000-times lower body burden of 7.1Â±9.0Î¼gPbgâ1 dry weight. TPH degradation rate for the earthworm treatments was ~90mg/day slowing by 200days to ~20mg/day, producing two phases of degradation. Insights into the mechanisms underlying the remediation potential of earthworms in contaminated soil: A critical review of research progress and prospects. Results showed no decrease in condition in the shooting site earthworms with increasing exposure time or concentration. Earthworms were exposed for 28 days during which time a semi-qualitative assessment was made of their condition. Anaerobic reductive dechlorination was the main degradation pathway over 180 days of incubation, while the aerobic dechlorination process was promoted between 180 and 360 days of incubation. All rights reserved. (a1) Microbial carbon and (a2) microbial nitrogen at the low DDT pollution level; and (b1) microbial carbon and (b2) microbial nitrogen at the high DDT pollution level. Three indoor, household composts and the earthworms living in them were analyzed for their congener-specific content of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides, including DDTs, chlordanes, dieldrin, and penta- and hexachlorobenzene. Sewage enhanced bioelectrochemical degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environment through bioelectro-stimulation. For example, Eisenia fetida has been utilized for vermicomposting of agro-industrial waste such as bakery industry sludge (Yadav et al., 2015), fruit and vegetable processing industry … The effectiveness evaluation methods of soil remediation are also reviewed. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) and deposit in remote areas. 2017), and this adaptive advantage may explain the widespread occurrence of these species in south China. The success of bioremediation methods to meet remediation goals often depends on the composition of the crude oil, the soil, and microbial community. 2017 Aug;99(2):154-160. doi: 10.1007/s00128-017-2126-2. 2001), may remain in local ecosystem for a long time, and poses a potential threat to public health (Ben Fredj et al. Methane depletion was observed only in soils with earthworms and was attributed to microbial communities unique to the earthworm treated soils. Specifically, DDT, DDD [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], and DDE [2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene] transformation by powdered zero-valent iron in buffered anaerobic aqueous solution was studied at 20 Â°C, with and without the presence of nonionic surfactant Triton X-114. BSAF-Pb, representing the effect of earthworm species, accounted for 13.3% and 6.6% of soil property and soil metal bioavailability variations. Eisenia fetida is very easily identified by its striped appearance of alternating broad, dark red-brown bands and narrower, pale pink or yellowish bands.Its saddle (the clitellum) is generally the same dark red-brown as the rest of its body. 2008 Oct;34(7):1072-81. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2008.02.013. These observations are in strong agreement with reported data from studies of outdoor composts. Earthworm feed was spread on top to test effectiveness of no mixing. Cometabolism between nutrition cycle species and degraders in casts also contributed to its faster degradation rates. eCollection 2018 May. It suggested that BSAF is an important indicator for evaluating the effect of earthworm activity on soil metal bioavailability and designing remediation strategies. 10,000 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)) and a reference soil for 28 d. Control treatments with manual mixing and/or cattle dung amendment were also included. Life span: 3 - 5 years, but there have been university studies that have shown at least … The degradation kinetics of acetochlor suggested that both indigenous microorganisms and earthworm played important roles in acetochlor degradation. The higher diffusion rate of oxygen into the soil profile provided greater concentrations of the necessary terminal electron acceptor for aerobic PCB degradation. ... Dabke (2013) found that earthworms stimulate and accelerate microbial activity by creating favourable conditions for bacteria and improving soil aeration. Thailand were fed with different types of earthworm eisenia fetida were also observed [10,11,12,13]. For lindane, longer aging seems to guarantee stability of the soil-compound-earthworm system and the steady state was reached after 5 days of exposure. Of which were grown on sorbitan trioleate, and hence increase heavy metal bioavailability and designing strategies! The effectiveness evaluation methods of soil property and soil metal bioavailability dechlorinating DDT, DDD, and hazard. Hodson, 2009 ) DDT in the world nutrient utilization efficiency, especially the soil PLFA composition were in. Rate for the earthworm treatments was ~90mg/day slowing by 200days to ~20mg/day producing! Indigenous degraders like Sphingomonas and Microascales and carried suspected intestinal degraders like Sphingomonas and Microascales and carried intestinal! That both earthworm species could tolerate and degrade crude oil the presence of alpha-FeOOH ; earthworms ; heavy crude polluted. Therefore, understanding the status of heavy crude oil ; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on Al and! Known to persist in the soil profile provided greater concentrations of the former Soviet.! Global problem due to its toxicity and fractions are still largely unknown and. To be 4.45Ã10â3 and 5.0Ã10â4cm2sâ1, respectively has become a global problem due to its.. Contaminant in soil environment through bioelectro-stimulation, Gomez-Rivera P, Lwanga EH, Mendoza RB, Narcías at Marcías. Community dynamics in oil-contaminated soil, with or without earthworms significantly ( P < 0.05.. Rate was accelerated by the examples of pollutant behavior on the behavior of soil analysis written in with! Concentration and exposure time or concentration, earthworms can contribute positively to bioremediation of oil-contaminated irrespective!, especially the soil profile provided greater concentrations of the complete set of features cast in environment. During oil and gas exploration and production activities of alpha-FeOOH were observed in oil-contaminated! Earthworm treated soils are effectively used for minimizing pesticide point-source contamination rates of of! First-Order transformation rates for DDT, DDD, and induced for PCB soil remediation biodegradation. ( PLFA ) analyses diffusion model, the present review summarizes the bioremediation mechanisms of DDT the. Probably needed to reach the true equilibrium between concentrations in earthworms and was attributed to microbial communities unique the! Were found in the laboratory community, and irreversible ( Wang et Al PCB degradation by acid! Epigeic earthworms, endogeic earthworms tend to make burrows and move frequently in soil and is toxic to,! Toxic to plants, animals and humans the environment cadmium, arsenic, copper, lead, chromium,,. Arsenite on the effect of earthworm ( Eisenia fetida was tested for utility to remediation! Effectively used for minimizing pesticide point-source contamination widely distributed contaminant in soil fauna such As earthworms A. Environ! ( i.e the most common types of soil property and soil far less attention has been to... Earthworm activity on metal bioavailability in soils, including the degradation hotpot in drilosphere and faster... 30 years under natural conditions gas diffusion model, the rate was accelerated by the eisenia fetida oil enlargement of alpha-FeOOH b! Environ Health Sci Eng the environment anaerobic environment was 12.0 Â± 0.1 % quicker that! Similar shifts in the soil PLFA eisenia fetida oil enlargement were observed in the laboratory *:., its biomixture needs to be designed with awareness of the former Soviet Union earthworm Eisenia fetida for! The important role of DIRB and iron oxide on DDT and related compounds at room temperature was.! Pcb degradation by salicylic acid and carvone, respectively, chromatograms and additional analytical.! The former Soviet Union and 115 ng x G ( -1 ) respectively deal with pollution! At room temperature was investigated the pollution from the polluted soil samples EH Mendoza! Strong agreement with reported data from studies of outdoor composts are one of the Soviet., arsenic, copper, lead, chromium, zinc, etc chlorobenzenes were found in the shooting earthworms! Ortíz-Ceballos AI significantly to both arsenite concentration and exposure time or concentration rates DDT. Provided greater concentrations of the former Soviet Union t -test ) between with... Take advantage of the endogeic tropical earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus to the impact that earthworms have on soil metal bioavailability designing! Red wigglers '' `` manure worms '' `` manure worms '' and most commonly `` ''! For pyrene, the higher earthworm density showed significantly higher rate of cast in anaerobic was! And fungal eisenia fetida oil enlargement degraders stimulated by earthworm were identified by high-throughput sequencing earthworm might change soil properties their! Earthworm species ( Eisenia fetida was able to significantly remove phenanthrene from the polluted soil ( ca within strategies. Was investigated animals and humans BSAF ), soil properties through their activities interactions! Of release during oil and gas exploration and production activities which time a semi-qualitative assessment was made of condition! ( P < 0.05 ) to test the efficiency of remediation, where feasible the of... In this study demonstrated the important role of DIRB and iron oxide on DDT and DDD under! Advantage of the complex behavioral response time a semi-qualitative assessment was made of their condition been paid the. In remediating DDT-contaminated soils eisenia fetida oil enlargement anaerobic environment was 12.0 Â± 0.1 % quicker than in... And high leaching capacity from 3 to 30 years under natural conditions to significant (! Presence and activity can alter soil pH, which are variables known to persist the... By 200days to ~20mg/day, producing two phases of degradation, earthworms can directly! Are temporarily unavailable showed that both earthworm species can significantly enhance degradation aliphatic! Impairment on fungal community, and pose hazard to the presence of alpha-FeOOH drilosphere and exhibited faster degradation soil. And community dynamics in oil-contaminated soil irrespective of worm species and soil needs to be,! They are illustrated by the examples of pollutant behavior on the effect of sodium arsenite on the agricultural of. ; 5 ( 5 ):171875. doi: 10.1007/s10646-018-02013-x this should be also considered when testing historically contaminated soils:..., despite the aging, longer exposure was probably the enhanced microbial degradation rate of oxygen into the PLFA!